Strength Basics

Getting stronger, fitter, and healthier by sticking to the basics. It's not rocket science, it's doing the simple stuff the right way. Strength-Basics updates every Monday, plus extra posts during the week.

Monday, March 27, 2017

Buddy Morris on knee rehab, rest, and recovery

I stumbled across this look at the terminal knee extension for rehab and warmup while looking for something else with Buddy Morris (Arizona Cardinals S&C coach):

Training Concepts, Recovery, and Knee Rehab with Buddy Morris

"At some point in time, rest becomes a training means."

Good stuff.

Monday, March 20, 2017

Which body measurements to track for which goals?

As a trainer, I track different things for different client goals. I have my clients track different metrics given their different goals.

Weight: Since scale weight is the gross total of your entire mass - fat, muscle, bone, water, that bowl of oatmeal you ate before you came to the gym, etc. - it's a rough measurement. Easy to take, but it doesn't drill down to the specifics of what it consists of. So I'm not generally interested in that for clients interested in fat loss. We'll measure it because it helps us calculate body fat.

For example: A client weighs 145 on day one. On day sixty, the client weights 135. Is that progress towards healthy weight loss? Maybe. But what if the client is dehydrated on day sixty and lost mostly muscle mass due to poor diet choices? We don't know, so it's only part of an answer.

For a client interested in getting bigger and stronger, this is a critical number. Seems odd - the skinny guy who wants to put on mass, the weak woman who wants to get stronger - why is weight more important to them than the person trying to lose weight? Because how much you weigh tells you how much bigger you're getting and provides a number to compare to your lifts.

For example: You pulled 315 at 190, and two months later you pulled 315 again. Are you stalled out? Maybe. But what if you're 185 two months later? Your proportional strength went up. Doing 12 dead-head pullups at 135 is impressive; doing 15 when you are still 135 means straight-up progress.

Body Fat: Now we're getting somewhere. Even if we're using a fairly inaccurate method, as long as it's consistent, it can give us insight into the ratio of lean body mass vs. fat.

For fat loss clients, I will strenuously argue for body fat measurements. The goal is really not weight loss, it's fat loss.

For example: A client drops from 220 to 210 but body fat goes from 25% to 28%. The client has lost more muscle than fat. The client went from 165 pounds of lean mass and 55 pounds of fat to 151.2 pounds of lean mass and 58.8 pounds of fat. That's negative progress - yet the scale says they've made a 10 pound drop!

Waist/Hip Measurements: I do these as waist the belly button vs. widest part of the glutes (other people do them different ways). I find those two are the easiest - check across the belly button, move the tape measure until you find the widest part of your glutes.

These measurements tell us a lot - are you gaining or losing midsection size (and therefore most likely fat)? Are you gaining or losing at the glutes? This is a great measure for folks looking to put on mass, too.

For example: A client's weight stays steady at 200, but the client's waist and hips go from 38" and 42" to 36" and 41.5". The client is most likely losing fat mass, especially around the midsection.

Caliper Measurements: I have not meant a single client who was willing to do these. Not one. I've got a pair of calipers and trained to use them, but used them in the field zero times. Fat loss clients are too embarrassed most of the time, it can feel invasive ("Hi, you just met me, can I use a pair of calipers on your flab?"), and I don't get any bodybuilders or people who need their fat levels drilled down to "but where do I need to lose it?"

Calorie Counts: I've written before about how I generally dislike calorie counting - too fiddly, inaccurately specific ("I ate 1,498 calories today and burned 1,520 calories!" = within +/- 10-20% of each of those numbers), hard to sustain. But in some cases I'll have clients track them to use as a minimum - to ensure they are eating enough. For fat loss clients, I care about food quality and eating consistency, not calorie counts. I know a lot of people swear by calorie counting and can point to success. I've read books by people who've tracked calories every day for years. But I've seen too many clients - in fact, almost all clients - eventually stop tracking, or track obsessively to the point of ignoring clear issues to meet calorie counts.

BMI: I only use body mass index when tracking it for a client that needs to reach a specific BMI for testing purposes. I think it's a useless measure at best. Yes, your height matters, but when lean and strong athletes rate as "obese" and skinny folks carrying a lot of fat are "healthy" you've got a measurement that tells you nothing useful about the client.

Here are some examples.

Case one is a skinny teenage boy looking to get bigger and stronger. He's lifting six days a week, getting in sufficient sleep and recovery.

We track calories, if possible - if not, simple food journaling or recall will do. Ideally we'll have a minimum calorie count each day. We track weight gain, but specifically do not track body fat or waist measurements. Knowing his weight is going up means we know he's putting on body mass. Some will be fat, yes, but most of it will be muscle given his training and eating. Tracking body fat would be useful but distracting - instead of worrying about getting enough food, sleep, and training, the client will also be thinking "Is this good weight? Am I putting on too much fat?" Since the answer is likely no, it's just more mental stress for no good purpose.

Case two is a middle-aged female looking to lose body fat. She's training two-three times a week and stays fairly active, but lack sufficient sleep due to job stress and hours.

We track weight in order to track body fat. We specifically do not track calories, although I may sit down and calculate them vs. a food recall journal and ask the client to add or subtract food from certain typical meals. We track body fat, and if the client agrees (many don't), waist and hip measurements. During discussions I never talk overall body weight.

Note these do rely on clients agreeing to regular measurements - I've had clients who won't let you check anything they can't show improvement on. No getting on the scale unless they've checked before they came and saw it went down (even if the goal is otherwise). No body fat measuring because it might be bad. No waist/hip measurements because it's embarrassing (and they won't do it themselves.) In those cases, I find it's best to ignore the less helpful measurements - don't check weight at all, for example. Instead, work steadily on making progress on processes, and if possible work towards getting useful measurements. Suggest the measurement methods and refer them out to someone else to check, or have them check themselves. It's always going to be more helpful the more information you know, but in my experience it's less than helpful to track, say, weight even though you know it's not giving you good information.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

No Time to Lift, so Warmup Only

This morning, after training clients, I had a lot to do - and a few of them needed to get done early. I didn't have much time for my usual Wednesday workout. In fact, I really didn't have time to do much of anything.

So all I did was my general purpose warmup and nothing else.

My warmup is critical to my workout. If I can only do one thing, it's warm up. I can't just jump into sled dragging, deadlifting, biking, squatting, pushups, etc. without really feeling the lack of the warmup. I can jump into my warmup, though. My "workout" needs my warmup, but my warmup doesn't need the workout.

Here is what I did:

The Couch Stretch
Some ELDOA stretches (mostly hip-centric stretches)
Cat-Camels / Kneeling Thoracic Extensions / Hip Shifting
Band Terminal Knee Extensions
Step Over walks
Hip Circle walks
A four-way shoulder warmup plus protractions and retractions

Had I had more time, I'd have put in more stretches, my usual foam rolling, and some stretches I do post-workout. Only if I had time enough to do that and more would I have added in my usual lifting in between.

Warmups are that important. Keeping up postural training, hip and shoulder rehab, activation drills, etc. is critical for me, more so than getting in a few sets of reps of "work."

If you don't have time to warm up, you don't have time to work out.

Monday, March 6, 2017

Quick Tip: Precede Presses with Throws

Just a quick tip today, for National Bench Press Day - celebrated every Monday, every week!

Before I have clients press, or press myself, I have them do two things:

- a general shoulder warmup, like is discussed in this post.

- throw things.

The throws tends to be either medicine ball tosses to the side (like you're swinging a bat, only throwing a medicine ball into a wall), "chest passes" where you throw a ball straight off your chest at a wall, or partner ball tossing (side or front throws to another person who throws it back). We use a 6-8 pound medicine ball, or something a little lighter, but not heavier - the goal is speed and snap, not how heavy of a ball can you throw.

We tend to do 10-12 throws per side, with a pause in between. I couch people to throw the ball at the wall like if they break it they don't have to do any more throws. When tossing to a partner, I ask for a moderately hard toss, so it's not impossible to catch but it's a moderate challenge to do so.

All we're trying to do here is get your nervous system firing before we start moving weights. I've found this allows for a heavier bench press or more weight at a given rep range for any kind of press in general. It's not throwing for fatigue, it's not "cardio," it's a warmup. Give it a try and let me know how it went in the comments.

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Joe DeFranco on rotator cuff warmups

Joe DeFranco put up a good video showing both band-resisted (which could also be cable-resisted) and dumbbell/plate rotator cuff warmups for the bench press:

I come from a background where we use those and a warmup by Diesel Crew (shown here by someone else) before anyone does any kind of pressing - bench, dumbbell bench, overhead pressing, angled pressing, etc. The weights seem light at best and dinky at worst, but they're what is needed for the job.

In fact, every client I have has done the 4-way pull aparts at some point, and most do them in their warmup every session, pressing or not. The few that don't get those motions baked into other movements. For me it's a fundamental series of movements worth every second spent working on them.

Sunday, February 19, 2017

The Purpose of Personal Training

Personal training does not give you results. It gives you the best chance to get results.

I endeavor to provide the following things:


Once you sign up for training sessions, you're accountable to someone else. If you have a scheduled workout, it's on two people's schedules. You can't just skip - generally, if you just skip, you're paying for that session and getting less results and letting someone else down.

Just for that, having someone else there to train with and train for makes you externally accountable. You have a check against skipping. You have a check against failure. And you have someone else there to make you feel like you have something to live up to.


This is answering, "What now?" - what is the next thing you need to do to get your results? If your goals change, how does your training need to train?

That can be as simple as, "again, faster" or "again, heavier." But it can (and often is) more complex than that. "Again, but lighter." "This new movement instead of that." "This approach instead of that." "These movements you hate to do but need instead of that one you like but don't benefit from." Again, the best chance to succeed.


This is making sure you are doing what you intend to do in a safe, effective, and efficient manner. Expertise helps you learn to move well, load properly, and do so in the dose you need.

And that's it - personal training is giving you three tools, in the form of an external coach, that gives you the best chance to succeed. You still have to do the work, and do it with consistency, but you've multiplied your results by getting someone's help. That's the service personal trainers like myself provide.

Friday, February 17, 2017

Single-Leg Squat video

I'm up on Instagram putting a client through an eccentric single leg squat exercise:

This is one I swiped shamelessly from Mike Guadango at Freak Strength. Controlled descent with weight on one leg, standing up with both legs. So you get a relatively heavily loaded eccentric (sitting down) portion of the exercise, with a safe landing if there is any issue with the rep, followed by a light two-legged standup. This worked wonders for own my knee issue, and conversations with Mike about why led me to bring it over from the athletic training environment to the more general health-and-healthy-movement training that I do.

You can generally perform an eccentric movement - lowering a weight - with a heavier load than you can perform a concentric movement. Therefore you can use a little heavier load with this than someone could easily use for standing up on one leg, allowing for a better strength improvement. You also tend to get strength in a slightly large range of motion than the one you use. So I can put a box-and-pads at a height just at the level that someone can perform the exercise and get them stronger there and at a lower height as well. If necessary, I can slowly work up and then remove a pad (or put a smaller one on) and work them up there, until we reach the desired height.

That's not a complete explanation of the whys and hows of the exercise, but it's one of the main reasons I find this exercise so useful for knee issues. I've also found it's useful for clients with large side-to-side leg strength differences. Nothing irons it out like slowly lowering to a box under a load.
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